Soil compaction and it's impact

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Soil compaction is the process whereby the soil particles are mechanically constrained to pack closely together through a reduction in the air voids. Compaction is measured in quantities in terms of dry density of the soil. The increase in the dry density of soil produced by compaction depends on the type of soil, on its water content, and on the amount and manner of application of the compacting energy.

In the field, soil is compacted with varies types of compaction plant such that: rollers (smooth-wheel, sheep foot, or pneumatic-tired) which utilize high static pressure for compaction, this type can be used for cohesive soils.



The laboratory testing basically involves compaction of soils, at different water content, in a standard manner. The values of dry density obtained are plotted against water content. The water content corresponding to the maximum value of dry density is referred to as the optimum water content.



Modified proctor test named for engineer Ralph R. Proctor (1933), is one of the most common laboratory methods of determination of the dry density water content relationship, which was developed to give a higher standard of compaction for airfield construction.


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